Tuesday, 22nd April, 2014
Anglesey: Mysterious artefact discovered at Neolithic tomb
Find at Perthi Duon excavation site near Brynsiencyn could prove existence of a British Copper Age says archaeology expert
The discovery of a mysterious copper artefact at a Neolithic tomb on Anglesey could help to answer one of archaeology’s burning questions.
Dr George Nash, who led the excavation at Perthi Duon near Brynsiencyn says the find could lend weight to the idea of a British Copper Age, which is currently being debated by archaeologists.
Perthi Duon – described by Dr Nash as Anglesey’s “least known Neolithic chambered tomb” – is believed to have been a portal dolmen, a type of single-chamber tomb mostly built in the early Neolithic period, and dates to around 3,500BC or earlier.
The site was examined as early as 1723, when antiquarian Henry Rowlands visited and drew the tomb, which then stood upright.
Dr Nash, of Bristol University, said the monument was in a “ruinous” state by the early years of the nineteenth century and had been incorporated into a boundary hedge.
An international team of archaeologists from the Welsh Rock Art Organisation recently excavated the site and uncovered “several significant features”, said Dr Nash.
Among them was the “curious” copper artefact, which could be a piece of jewellery worn thousands of years ago.
Dr Nash said: “This item could be an important discovery which may reinforce the notion of a Copper Age in the British Isles. Copper items from the British Neolithic (c. 4,000 – 2,000BC) and Early Bronze Age (c. 2,500 – 1,800BC) are considered rare.”
The Copper Age followed the Neolithic Era and is considered a part of the Bronze Age. The period is defined as a phase of the Bronze Age in which metallurgists had not yet discovered that bronze could be made by adding tin to copper.
While a Copper Age has long been recognised in Europe, the question of whether Britain experienced such a period is still debated by archaeologists.
Dr Nash said: “The big question in archaeology at the moment is whether there was a Copper Age in Britain.
“Did copper come to Britain before bronze?
“This discovery helps to suggest that we did have a Copper Age.”
The copper artefact will be subject to scientific testing in a bid to learn more about its origins.
Ploughing around the monument during the latter part of the 20th century caused “a lot of disturbance” to the archaeological remains, said Dr Nash.
However, other finds made at the site included areas of compacted stone which would once have formed a kidney-shaped mound around the chamber, and a rare circular stone socket which would have supported a kerbstone used to delineate the shape of the monument. Shards of pottery were also found.
Dr Nash said: “These discoveries clearly show this monument to be a portal dolmen, one of the earliest Neolithic monument types in Wales.
“More importantly, the architecture of Perthi Duon appears to be a blueprint for other portal dolmen monuments within what is termed the Irish Sea Province. From this excavation, we now have a better understanding of the burial and ritual practices that went on at this site some 5,500 years ago.”
In Neolithic times, the dead would have been deposited within the chamber as a cremation or, in later years, as disarticulated remains.
Wednesday, 19th March, 2014
Chiseldon village’s replica Iron Age cauldron unveiled
A full-size replica of an Iron Age cauldron found in a Wiltshire field as part of “the biggest Iron Age find to date” has been unveiled.
The large cauldron is one of 17 found by a metal detector enthusiast near the village of Chiseldon in 2004.
The cauldrons, described as “too fragile and important ever to return to Chiseldon”, are at the British Museum.
But in 2011, a local history group commissioned an exact copy to be made as a lasting memory of the find.
The bronze and iron vessels, excavated by the British Museum and Wessex Archaeology, were discovered “carefully placed” in a pit along with ox skulls.
“At first we thought there would only be one or two cauldrons but to find this many is without parallel, not just in Britain but across all of Europe,” said Dr Andrew Fitzpatrick, of Wessex Archaeology.
“It’s a unique find – but they’re very fragile and aren’t really in a condition to go on display.”
With the Chiseldon cauldrons, never expected to return to the village, local residents raised £2,000 to commission local blacksmith Hector Cole to make an exact replica.
“The tools don’t change, the techniques don’t change, I did exactly the same as the original makers would have done,” said Mr Cole.
“There are 17, and the one they liked was one of the more expensive cauldrons.
“It’s a top of the range cauldron. Whichever tribe owned it, they were important.”
The replica cauldron was unveiled at the weekend and is due to go on permanent display at the village museum, next year.
A Middle Iron Age cauldron, dating from around 200 BC. Only the La Tène II/III iron cauldron collar and rim are original. It was found in a ditch at the Iron Age settlement at Blackhorse Road in Letchworth Garden City, Hertfordshire.
Also in the News:
A skeleton of an Iron Age woman with her feet chopped off has been discovered in a field in Wiltshire.
The remains were found along the A303, near West Knoyle, by archaeologists ahead of a new water main being laid.
Wessex Water said the woman’s feet were found “reburied alongside her” along with the carcasses of at least two sheep or goats “on her head”.
Peter Cox, from AC Archaeology, said: “We’re unsure why – but it must have some link to beliefs at the time.”
The female skeleton was found alongside the remains of a child aged about 10 and two males with sword wounds to their hips.
Wessex Water is currently building a 40-mile (64km) pipeline to carry water from a Dorset treatment plant into Wiltshire.
It was during a pre-work survey of the West Knoyle area that AC Archaeology unearthed the Iron Age burial site.
“Human remains from these periods are very rare and indicate the long period of settlement that has occurred in the area,” said Mr Cox.
“But we’re unsure why the female skeleton has been found without her feet or why she may have been buried with sheep, but perhaps it was to protect her soul from bad spirits.”
The bones have been removed from the site and will undergo radiocarbon dating to determine their age.
Tuesday, 25th February, 2014
Shield-wearing [?!] skeleton, necklace and grave goods found in early Saxon inhumations
The discovery of nine bodies in Cambridgeshire could reveal much about the little-known early Saxon period.
An early Saxon man who fell on his shield [?!] has been found buried with a knife and spear alongside a jewellery-clad woman during a dig on a residential site in a Cambridgeshire village.
The discoveries [pics] follow the excavation of 11 skeletons in the village in 1990. Grave goods, weaponry and everyday items from the 6th century surfaced during the excavation in Haddenham, where similar remains – including a double burial of a man and a woman – were first identified more than 20 years ago*.
“A total of nine inhumations were discovered, ranging from the very young to fully grown adults,” says Jon House, of Pre-Construct Archaeology, thanking local residents for their “great interest” and “warm and welcoming” approach to the team during unfavourable weather conditions.
“The burials included an adult male, found lying upon a decorative shield and with a knife and a spear.
“A beaded necklace was found around the neck and upper torso of an adult female, who was also buried with a belt or girdle with copper and iron fittings.
“Projects such as these prove how even the smallest developments can yield a wealth of archaeological information and, in the case of this particular site, details not only of how people lived but also of their treatment towards the dead over 1,400 years ago.
“This is especially important during those periods, such as the early Saxon era, which have left little or no historical data.”
*Robinson, B & Dunhig, C. 1992. ‘Anglo-Saxon burials at the “Three Kings”, Haddenham, 1990′, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Volume LXXXI: 15-38
Abstract: One intact double burial of the pagan Anglo-Saxon period and several disturbed burials were excavated. Three apparently later rectangular pits containing pig burials were also discovered. There is a report on ‘The skeletal material’ by Corrine Duhig (24–32). The burials are thought to date from the first half of the sixth century and there is some speculation as to the location of the settlement they served. Gravegoods included amber beads, glass beads, an iron shield boss, studs, buckle, ferrule, spear head, knife, and latchlifter, a bone comb and spindle whorl, and bronze brooches and tweezers. Finally ‘Appendix A’ (36–7) provides an artefact catalogue, ‘Appendix B’ (37) a burial catalogue, and ‘Appendix C’ (38) an outline of the site matrix.
Wednesday, 19th February, 2014
A Viking metal rod which left experts baffled for more than a century has finally been identified as a ‘magic wand’ used by a witch [O.N. volva or Icelandic völva] to cast spells.
The staff, which was found in a ninth-century grave, is curved at the end – causing it to be misidentified as a fishing hook or a spit for roasting food.
However, archaeologists have now concluded that it was in fact a magical item belonging to a sorceress who was ‘on the margins of society’.
It had been buried next to a woman’s body alongside other valuable items including an unusual plaque made of whalebone, implying that the person in the grave had a high status in Viking society.
They suggest that the reason it was bent before being buried with its owner was to remove its magical properties – possibly to prevent the witch coming back from the dead.
The 90cm-long rod has been part of the British Museum’s collection since 1894, when it was discovered in Norway’s Romsdal province.
Its unusual shape, with a knobbly ‘handle’ and a hooked end, originally led historians to believe that it was a practical object used for catching fish.
They later decided that it was in fact a skewer for roasting meat – but after comparing the rod with other similar objects*, experts have now reached a different conclusion.
British Museum curator Sue Branning says that it was probably a magical staff [vølvestav] used to perform ‘seithr’ [seiðr], a form of Viking sorcery predominantly practiced by women.
‘Our rod fits with a number of these rods that turn up in the ninth and 10th century in female burials,’ she told The Times. ‘They normally take the form of these long iron rods with knobs attached to them.’
The curve in the end of the staff is likely to have signified that it was being put out of use, a common practice in the medieval period for grave goods which were routinely broken when they were buried.
Bending or breaking the buried possessions of the dead could have served to neutralise their magical properties – preventing their former owners from casting spells from beyond the grave.
‘There must have been some kind of ritual,’ Ms Branning said. ‘This object was ritually “killed”, an act that would have removed the power of this object.’
Although Viking society, like most medieval societies, was dominated by men, some women were believed to have special powers which made them influential figures.
Ms Branning said: ‘These women were very well respected, but they were quite feared as well. They may have been on the margins of society.’
Because the Vikings were not converted to Christianity until around 1000 AD, there is strong evidence for the importance of magic in their society at a time when the rest of Europe had largely abandoned the practice.
Gardela, L. (2009) ‘A Biography of the Seiðr-Staffs. Towards an Archaeology of Emotions‘. In L. P. Slupecki, J. Morawiec (eds.), Between Paganism and Christianity in the North, Rzeszów: Rzeszów University, 190-219.
Monday, 17th February, 2014
Excavation begins to uncover St Piran’s Oratory
Followers of Cornwall’s favourite saint will be donning their boots and raising their shovels next week as the operation to unearth St Piran’s Oratory from the dunes gets under way.
The week-long project, to be carried out by a team of volunteers led by archaeologists, is the culmination of a 15-year campaign by St Piran Trust. Buried “for its own protection ” in 1980, the 5th century stone structure [probably later, although a stone bearing a fragmentary inscription (PERNP/1) of probable 5th or 6th century date is featured upside down in the wall of the oratory] set in sand dunes above Perranporth is claimed by some historians to be the oldest Christian building in Britain.
Truro and Falmouth MP Sarah Newton will be joined by diggers and archaeologists at the site on Monday to officially launch the excavation. Trust founder, Eileen Carter, has been invited to cut the first turf in recognition of her huge contribution to the campaign.
“I’ve waited 15 years for this and there were times I thought I wouldn’t live to see it,” she said. “I think if I’d known it would take this long I might never have started. But I’m glad we kept on going and I am confident we will find the oratory in good condition. It is heartwarming how Cornwall, despite the many delays and setbacks, has continued to keep the faith, pulled together and given so generously.”
Being located in one of the most ecologically sensitive sites in Europe meant it took the trust longer than expected to obtain the various legal permissions to excavate the building, which is encased in a concrete shell. The project is supported by Cornwall Council [link includes short film], Perranzabuloe Parish Council, English Heritage, Heritage Lottery, Cornwall Heritage Trust [p.5], the Duke of Cornwall and private donors.
The dig itself has been made possible thanks to the generosity of businessman David Barrie. Mr Barrie – who is also an artist, painting under the pseudonym Piran Strange – said that as a child he had become fascinated by the legend of the Irish holy man who came to Cornwall and discovered tin. He explained that he first came across the story at the age of nine, when he started at St Piran’s School in Berkshire.
“St Piran has provided me with the happiest times of my life and I owe him a lot,” he said. “You have to be on the dunes at Perranporth to know that he is there. His presence is all around you. It is mystical, magical and, above all, holy. By uncovering the oratory we are creating a place of pilgrimage to the patron saint of Cornish tin miners at a place that represents one of the earliest places of Christian worship in the UK.”
It was some years after leaving school and pursuing a successful career that Mr Barrie came across St Piran’s Trust and contacted Eileen Carter.
“Eileen gave me the background to the organisation and its ambitions and it just struck a chord,” he said. “I loved St Piran’s School and had enjoyed huge success through the name Piran Strange. So I decided it was time to give something back. The trust’s aim to raise the oratory from its burial place became my passion and I was happy to contribute.”
A decision on the next stage of the operation will be made when archaeologists and structural engineers have submitted their report. Trust company secretary Ian Saltern said: “After 15 long years of campaigning, the oratory will finally be uncovered. This is a momentous development and one to be savoured.
“Once uncovered, we will assess its conservation needs and potential and then prepare an application for funding for the second stage. Depending on what we find, it will see the oratory conserved and an exploration of the wider area of Lanpiran, the medieval monastic site which grew up around the oratory. The second stage will also see the production of resources for schools and community activities.”
An annual pilgrimage to the oratory and cross takes place each year on the Sunday closest to St Piran’s Day [5th March]. Several hundred people are expected to attend on March 2, when they will be able to view the excavations.
Thursday, 6th February, 2014
An exhibition exploring the origins of ancient skeletons in Sussex, including a woman from sub-Saharan Africa buried in Roman times, has opened.
The face of the so-called Beachy Head Lady was recreated using craniofacial reconstruction.
Eastbourne Borough Council‘s museum service was awarded a grant of £72,000 by the Heritage Lottery Fund for the Eastbourne Ancestors project.
The aim was to identify the gender and age of each skeleton in its collection.
Detailed scientific analysis of more than 300 skeletons of people who lived in the south of England thousands of years ago has undertaken by scientists and archaeologists.
Testing of the bones and teeth has identified the national or regional origins, age, gender, state of health, diet, and in some cases, how they died.
3D reconstruction techniques have allowed faces to be put to some of the museum’s skulls
Most of the skeletons are Anglo-Saxon, from about 1,500 years ago, but some are Neolithic and more than 4,000 years old.
The Beachy Head Lady was discovered in the East Sussex beauty spot in 1953, and she is thought to have lived around AD245.
Jo Seaman, heritage officer at Eastbourne Borough Council, said: “This is a fantastic discovery for the south coast.
“We know this lady was around 30 years old, grew up in the vicinity of what is now East Sussex, ate a good diet of fish and vegetables, her bones were without disease and her teeth were in good condition.”
The Beachy Head Lady forms part of an exhibition at the Eastbourne Museum which is opens on 1 February at the Pavilion.