The faces of Burke and Hare

 Doon the close and up the stair
Butt and ben wi Burke and Hare
Burke’s the butcher, Hare’s the thief
And Knox the boy that buys the beef!

Found: the faces of Burke and Hare

The forgotten faces of two of Scotland’s most infamous murderers have been discovered among a number of macabre artefacts languishing in the store cupboard of a former prison.
Almost exactly 180 years after their brutal crimes shocked the nation, a rare pair of plaster masks of the notorious body snatchers Burke and Hare have been found at  Inveraray jail in Argyll, along with a genuine hangman’s noose, launching a mystery as to how they got there. Neither of the murderers was ever held at Inveraray, nor was anyone ever hanged inside the prison.
“We found the masks during a clean-out of one of our store rooms, it was quite a surprise,” said Gavin Dick, the general manager of the jail, which is now a museum. “Initially we thought it was just Burke, but it turns out we’ve got two heads. A death mask of Burke and a life mask of Hare. Unfortunately very little is known about either head, or for that matter the hangman’s noose, and how they came to be here.”
William Burke and William Hare are among the most notorious of Scotland’s criminals but, contrary to popular belief, the two Irish labourers were not grave robbers. Although they supplied bodies for dissection to the  anatomist Robert Knox, at Surgeon’s Square in Edinburgh, the pair found it easier to kill rather than exhume their victims.
Until the  1832 Anatomy Act, the only legal sources of corpses for anatomical purposes in the UK were those of people condemned to death and dissection by the courts. However as the need to train medical students increased, the number of executed criminals fell, so Knox was only too glad to receive the Irishmen’s wares. It is believed that Burke and Hare murdered at least 16 people, possibly as many as 30, before their crimes were discovered. Hare turned King’s evidence and escaped the gallows, while Burke was publicly executed and his body exhibited before being flayed and dissected.
A number of ghoulish souvenirs were kept of Burke, including a book and a snuff box bound in pieces of his skin. His  skeleton is still kept under lock and key at Edinburgh University.
The activities of the former  navvies, who had originally moved to Edinburgh to work on the Union Canal, repelled and fascinated the public. At the time, phrenology was a popular “new science” that claimed that the shape and contours of a person’s head could dictate their personality traits. So-called experts held talks across the country using casts of the heads of infamous criminals to illustrate their point.
A life mask is known to have been made of  Hare during the trial [3rd pic in link series], and  Burke’s shaven head was cast after his execution in front of 25,000 people on 28 January 1829.
Although a handful of masks are known to still exist, with at least one in the United States, one in a museum in  Swansea and copies at the universities of St Andrews and Edinburgh, they are very rare. “How or why they should end up in Inveraray jail is a something of a mystery,” said Owen Dudley Edwards, the author of several works about the murderous pair. “There are no links at all between Inveraray and Burke and Hare, so it seems a very unlikely place to find these masks. There have been cases where copies have shown up in strange places, usually because they were once owned by private collectors, but there certainly weren’t many of them made.
“There were some pretty ghoulish souvenirs from Burke, such as  book covers and a snuff box. There was never any death mask made of Hare because nobody knows for certain what happened to him.”
Although there was much public anger at the fact that Hare was allowed to go free, attempts to bring further charges against him failed and he fled to England. The man described at the time as a “rude ruffian, ferocious profligate” and “evidently the greatest villain of the two” was last seen heading east from Carlisle on the road to Newcastle.
There were reports that he was living at Buckminster in Leicestershire until his identity was discovered and he was forced to move on. He is said to have died a blind beggar in London, or even emigrated to the US.
Andrew Connell, museum collections manager at the Royal College of Surgeons, which has its own copy of Burke’s death mask, said the find was definitely unusual: “I’ve not seen them anywhere else. I don’t think they were like Charles and Diana souvenirs, churned out in their thousands. There was probably only a handful made, if that.”
Staff at Inveraray jail are considering whether to exhibit the masks and the noose alongside their existing house of horrors, such as a cat o’ nine tails, and a tongue holder for nagging wives, which are used to illustrate the history of crime and punishment in Scotland.

Other life and death masks:

 Death masks in a gibbet in the keep of Norwich Castle.
 Record about Phrenology and Death Mask Collection at Norwich Castle
 The Death Mask of Thetford’s Thomas Paine
 William Corder’s death mask

 Wax death mask of Oliver Cromwell
 Death mask of George Bernard Shaw

 Life mask – John Hunter
 Life mask – John Keats

Life Mask – Abraham Lincoln

Life Mask – Nelson


Sir Charles Bell’s watercolours


The harsh reality of war and nineteenth-century surgery is encountered in the anatomical watercolours of Charles Bell. They depict his patients and their injuries, especially the horrific wounds dealt with by army surgeons in Wellington’s army.

“Johnnie! How can we let this pass? Here is such an occasion of seeing gun-shot wounds come to our very door. Let us go!”: Charles Bell to his brother.

Charles Bell (1774-1842) KGH, FRS, FRSE, was a renowned surgeon, anatomist and artist, who discovered Bell’s Palsy and produced many anatomical drawings and watercolours, some of the most important of which were produced while he was working as a medical officer at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He was born in Scotland and came to London in 1804. He built up a private teaching practice and then bought the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy founded by William Hunter. His association with The Middlesex began in 1814 when he was appointed surgeon there. This was followed by appointments as Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1824, and then as Professor of Surgery at the new University of London (now University College London). Bell left the University in 1830 and was instrumental in establishing a Medical School at The Middlesex Hospital in 1835. In 1836 Bell went back to Edinburgh to take up a post of Professor of Surgery, and died in 1842.

Born into a respectable Scottish family in 1774, Charles Bell was an accomplished anatomist, surgeon, physiologist, author and artist. His highly successful civil medical career coincided with the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars of 1792–1815. In early 1809, Sir John Moore’s Peninsular Army landed on the South Coast following the desperate retreat to Corunna. About 28,000 ill and wounded soldiers disembarked, causing consternation in the local population. The army medical services were overwhelmed and Bell was among a number of civilian surgeons who volunteered to help. He performed a similar altruistic service 6 years later in the aftermath of the Battle of Waterloo where 55,000 dead and wounded were left on the field. These sudden transitions from civilian to military surgery were not straightforward and Bell’s operation results in the Brussels hospitals were not impressive. Only one of his 12 amputation cases survived—a mortality rate of 92% which was high even allowing for the more hazardous nature of secondary operations which had had to be delayed long after the initial injury.From: Howard, M. R. 2005. ‘A surgical artist at war: the paintings and sketches of Sir Charles Bell 1809-1815: review’, J R Soc Med, 98 (11): 517.

 Watercolour of the brain by Sir Charles Bell

Wellcome Collection (not for the squeamish).

Further reading:

Crumplin, M. K. H. & Starling, P. original 1819 (2005 reprint). A Surgical Artist at War: The Paintings and Sketches of Sir Charles Bell 1809-1815, Royal College of Surgeons (London).