Viking king discovered?

Thursday, 12th June, 2014

East Lothian skeleton may be 10th Century Irish Viking king
A skeleton discovered on an archaeological dig in East Lothian may be a 10th Century Irish Viking who was king of Dublin and Northumbria.
King Olaf Guthfrithsson [Óláfr Guðfriðarson][Ánláf] led raids on Auldhame and nearby Tyninghame shortly before his death in 941.
The remains excavated from Auldhame in 2005 are those of a young adult male who was buried with a number of items indicating his high rank.
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They include a belt similar to others from Viking Age Ireland.
The find has led archaeologists and historians to speculate that the skeleton could be that of King Olaf or one of his entourage.
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A jaw bone was part of the remains found at Auldhame which may belong to King Olaf
Olaf was a member of the Uí Ímar dynasty who, in 937, defeated his Norse rivals in Limerick and pursued his family claim to the throne of York.
He married the daughter of King Constantine II of Scotland and allied himself with Owen I of Strathclyde.
The theory that he could have been buried close to the Auldhame battle site was revealed as Culture Secretary Fiona Hyslop visited a Neolithic monument in County Meath, Ireland.
The tour of Newgrange is being used to highlight archaeological links between Scotland and Ireland.
Ms Hyslop said: “This is a fascinating discovery and it’s tantalising that there has been the suggestion that this might be the body of a 10th Century Irish Viking king.”
Dr Alex Woolf, a senior lecturer in the School of History at the University of St Andrews and a consultant on the project, admits the evidence is circumstantial.
But he said: “Whilst there is no way to prove the identity of the young man buried at Auldhame, the date of the burial and the equipment make it very likely that this death was connected with Olaf’s attack.”

Silver Viking pendant

Monday, 7th April, 2014

Old news, but new exhibition.

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This pendant, found in 2002, has been on loan to the National Museum, Copenhagen for their Viking exhibition last year. It has since been returned to be one of the many exhibits in the Vikings: Life and Legend exhibition which opened at the British Museum in March this year.

It was aquired by Ipswich Museum in 2003: Rare pendant added to collection
IPSWICH Borough Council has added a rare early Viking pendant to its heritage collection – thanks to financial support from The Friends of Ipswich Museums.
The silver pendant is probably an Anglo-Scandinavian product, dated to the time of the main Danish settlement in East Anglia after around 879.
It shows a male [! cf. images below and National Museum captions] warrior wearing a long dress-like tunic holding a shield and sword. It was found near Wickham Market last year [2002] by a local medal detector and declared Treasure Trove. Ipswich Museum has managed to purchase it with financial assistance from the Friends of Ipswich Museums.
The pendant can be compared with a series of similar, early Viking-period, usually female figures of the 9th century from Scandinavia and England.
Danish Vikings plundered eastern England from the 8th century onwards, before settling in East Anglia after around 879. This can be seen in local place names. Suffolk’s Viking place-names are Ashby, Barnby, Eyke, Lound, and Risby. Ipswich’s prosperity in the late Saxon period was probably responsible for the fact that it was frequently the target of Danish raiders; they plundering the town in 919 and again in 991. The town was among the last targets of Danish raids on East Anglia in 1069.
Viking metal-detector finds from East Anglia easily outnumber those from other parts of the country. Mostly from the late 9th, 10th and 11th centuries and are predominantly small objects of personal adornment – brooches, buckles, pins etc, manufactured both in Scandinavia and locally in Scandinavian styles.
Sally Dummer, Registration and Collections Manager at Ipswich Borough Council, said: “This is an exciting acquisition, as the archaeology collections has very few objects from the Viking period. The Museum is very grateful to the Friends of Ipswich Museums for their assistance with this purchase. The pendant is now exhibited in the Viking display in the Ipswich Story at the High Street Museum.

Some other Viking valkyrie pieces:

1ccb0b9e19Figure depicting a valkyrie. In Norse mythology the valkyries took fallen warriors to Valhalla. Photograph: The National Museum.

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Piece of jewellery depicting a valkyrie. Found at Tissø.

Four views of the Valkyrie, cleaned and to scale

3D Hårby  valkyrie figure

Reinterpretation of a Viking metal rod

Wednesday, 19th February, 2014

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A Viking metal rod which left experts baffled for more than a century has finally been identified as a ‘magic wand’ used by a witch [O.N. volva or Icelandic völva] to cast spells.
The staff, which was found in a ninth-century grave, is curved at the end – causing it to be misidentified as a fishing hook or a spit for roasting food.
However, archaeologists have now concluded that it was in fact a magical item belonging to a sorceress who was ‘on the margins of society’.
It had been buried next to a woman’s body alongside other valuable items including an unusual plaque made of whalebone, implying that the person in the grave had a high status in Viking society.
They suggest that the reason it was bent before being buried with its owner was to remove its magical properties – possibly to prevent the witch coming back from the dead.
The 90cm-long rod has been part of the British Museum’s collection since 1894, when it was discovered in Norway’s Romsdal province.
Its unusual shape, with a knobbly ‘handle’ and a hooked end, originally led historians to believe that it was a practical object used for catching fish.

They later decided that it was in fact a skewer for roasting meat – but after comparing the rod with other similar objects*, experts have now reached a different conclusion.
British Museum curator Sue Branning says that it was probably a magical staff [vølvestav] used to perform ‘seithr’ [seiðr], a form of Viking sorcery predominantly practiced by women.
‘Our rod fits with a number of these rods that turn up in the ninth and 10th century in female burials,’ she told The Times. ‘They normally take the form of these long iron rods with knobs attached to them.’
The curve in the end of the staff is likely to have signified that it was being put out of use, a common practice in the medieval period for grave goods which were routinely broken when they were buried.
Bending or breaking the buried possessions of the dead could have served to neutralise their magical properties – preventing their former owners from casting spells from beyond the grave.
‘There must have been some kind of ritual,’ Ms Branning said. ‘This object was ritually “killed”, an act that would have removed the power of this object.’
Although Viking society, like most medieval societies, was dominated by men, some women were believed to have special powers which made them influential figures.
Ms Branning said: ‘These women were very well respected, but they were quite feared as well. They may have been on the margins of society.’
Because the Vikings were not converted to Christianity until around 1000 AD, there is strong evidence for the importance of magic in their society at a time when the rest of Europe had largely abandoned the practice.

Cross fragment from kirk Michael, isle of Man, bearing a female figure with a staff, often interpreted as a wise woman with a staff.

Cross fragment from Kirk Michael, Isle of Man, bearing a female figure with a staff, often interpreted as a wise woman with a staff.

* A seeress from Fyrkat

Further reading:
Gardela, L. (2009) ‘A Biography of the Seiðr-Staffs. Towards an Archaeology of Emotions. In L. P. Slupecki, J. Morawiec (eds.), Between Paganism and Christianity in the North, Rzeszów: Rzeszów University, 190-219.

Insular mount from Viking grave

Sunday, 5th January, 2014

Celtic brooch

Looted Viking treasure is discovered in British Museum store: Curator spots 1,000-year-old brooch in lump taken from 18th century excavation

A Celtic treasure looted by the Vikings more than 1,000 years ago has been discovered in the British Museum’s storerooms. An ornate, gilded disc brooch dating from the eighth or ninth century was found by chance and is being described as a “staggering find”. No-one knew of its existence until now.
It had been concealed in a lump of organic material excavated from a Viking burial site at Lilleberge in Norway by a British archaeologist in the 1880s and acquired by the British Museum in 1891.
Curator Barry Ager, a Vikings specialist, was poring over artefacts before a visit from a Norwegian researching the Viking site when his eye was caught by some metal sticking out of the side of the organic lump.
Intrigued, he asked the conservation department to X-ray it. “At that stage, I really didn’t know what was inside,” he said. “It was a staggering find.”
He added: “It turned out, quite remarkably, to be this Celtic disc… It’s extremely exciting… It’s a very rare example of its sort within the collection… shows contact between the British Isles and Norway in the Viking period … objects seized as loot in this country and taken back.”
He believes that it was originally made in Ireland or Scotland, that it came from a shrine or a reliquary, and that the Vikings converted it into a brooch by attaching rivet holes and a pin.
The brooch, almost 6cm in diameter, had been buried in the grave of a high-status Viking woman. Substantial remains of the gilding still survive on the top surface and its elaborate design includes three dolphin-like creatures and interlaced patterns.
“The …patterns, the quatrefoil of the central roundel and the form of the ‘dolphins’ heads have clear parallels in Celtic metalwork and manuscripts of the 8th to early 9th centuries, such as the Tara Brooch and the Book of Mac Regol,” Ager said.
He described the craftsmanship as “very fine” and said that the Vikings valued “eye-catching” objects: “The Vikings themselves were very skilled metalworkers, so I’m sure that’s something that would appeal to a Viking eye.”
Other artefacts that came to the museum from that burial site included two oval brooches and strings of beads. There was also a spindle whorl and a whalebone plaque, which may have been used as a food serving-tray in feasts.
Ager explained: “It was the custom to bury the person with their personal possessions. They were pagan at the time, so it was part of the standard Viking burial rite.”
The burial site was a grave field marked by large mounds. The 19th-century excavation was carried out by Alfred Heneage Cocks*, a British archaeologist, in his spare time between hunting and fishing in Norway. He recorded his progress in a journal. Describing the moment he discovered the spindle whorl, he wrote: “This my knife unfortunately divided before I saw it – it was as soft as the softest cheese.”
Fortunately, he also retained some lumps of organic material, Ager said.
Extensive research is yet to be done. The wood within that lump leads him to suspect that it is the remains of a box to which the brooch may have been attached. Tests might determine whether it is local from the British Isles.
14-59-Lilleberge-assemblage-580x431Investigating the Lilleburge assemblage, a collection of Viking objects that includes items still in the small blocks of soil in which they were excavated in 1886 from a long barrow in Norway.

Removing the brooch from the lump was a painstaking process involving scalpels as conservators wanted to preserve a rare example of Viking textile. That too will be tested, but experts have already detected three different types, including a herringbone pattern.
The brooch will go on display from March 27 in Room 41 – Sutton Hoo and Europe AD 300–1100 – which tells the story of a formative period in Europe’s history. A major exhibition, Vikings: Life and Legend, which focuses on the core period of the Viking Age from the late 8th century to the early 11th century, will include the remains of a 37-metre Viking longship – the longest ever found and never seen before in the UK – runs from 6 March to 22 June.

The reuse of an Insular mount may be paralleled by the example from Komnes, Norway. The gilt-bronze disc mount, with raised ‘watch spring’ spiral bosses, is now in the Universitetets Oldsaksamling, Oslo. It was probably, also, looted from an ecclesiastical cross or shrine during a raid in Ireland and brought to Norway and dates to the 8th or 9th century.

*Alfred Heneage Cocks (British archaeologist; collector; 1864 – 1928)

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Silver disc reveals Christian worship

A small Roman silver disc, thought to have been part of a signet ring, has revealed evidence of Christian worship in late Roman Norfolk.The disc, circa 312 to 410AD, found near Swaffham in February, is inscribed ‘Antonius, may you live in God’ [ANTONI VIVAS IN DEO].

Adrian Marsden, finds officer based at Norwich Castle Museum, said: “We have practically no other evidence for any Christians in Norfolk.”The disc was declared treasure at an inquest in King’s Lynn.Mr Marsden added: “The disc that would have been set into the bezel from a signet ring constitutes important evidence for Christianity in late Roman Norfolk.

“The inscription, translating as ‘Antonius, may you live in God’, is a Christian formula and we have practically no other evidence – apart from a broadly similar ring in gold from Brancaster* – for any Christians in Norfolk. “On one level, of course, this is good negative evidence, implying that most people at the time worshipped the old gods. On another, it shows there were one or two Christians around.
“The ring would have been a gift to Antonius, perhaps on the occasion of his conversion, coming of age or betrothal/marriage.”

The inquest, led by Norfolk coroner William Armstrong, also declared a rectangular Viking silver ingot and four Iron Age silver units as treasure.

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“The Vikings didn’t use coined money at this date but bullion, so these ingots are useful examples of how trade was carried on,” said Mr Marsden.
The 28mm (1.1in) ingot, circa 850 to 1000AD, was found by a metal detector enthusiast near Downham Market last summer and features a decorative motif typical on jewellery of the Viking period.
Mr Marsden added: “The ingot offers some interesting possibilities for metallurgical analysis, to look at how pure they are and what sort of other metals if any might be alloyed with the silver.”
The Norwich Castle Museum hopes to acquire the ingot and Roman disc for their collection.

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Other examples of probable  evidence of early Christianity in Britain:

The  VIVAS IN DEO formula

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*The Brancaster ring
The ring has a design of two intaglio confronted heads on the bezel and  was found in 1829 in the shore-fort at Brancaster (Branodunum), Norfolk. The legend above and below the design, in reverse reads: VIVAS/IN DEO. The  inscription is considered to have been added on presentation to a Christian. Johns (1996) suggests that it may be a Christian marriage ring and cites the fourth century Projecta casket,  from a hoard found on Esquiline Hill, in Rome, in the eighteenth century, as a parallel. This casket was decorated with a husband-and-wife portrait and inscribed  SECVNDE ET PROIECTA VIVATIS IN CHRI[STO] (‘Secundus and Projecta, may you live in Christ’).

The Richborough Ring is of bronze and is a late 4th century ring found in Richborough Castle, Kent. It has a chi-rho symbol on the bezel and the inscription reads IUSTINE.VIVAS.IN.DEO – “Jusinius, may you live in God”.

The Vyne ring, found near Silchester, has a  secondary misspelt inscription SENICIANE VIVAS IIN DE (Thomas 1981:131).

The Brancaster and Silchester (Vyne) rings seem to have been originally pagan objects adapted to Christian use.
The Hoxne Hoard does not have any inscriptions of an overtly pagan nature, and the hoard is considered to have come from a Christian household/s because the religious inscriptions on some of the jewellery and tableware are all Christian. In addition to the common chi-rho monogram, one spoon is engraved with the common Christian phrase, VIVAS IN DEO (“May you live in God”). Thus, the Hoxne hoard adds significant evidence for Christianity in late Roman Britain.

The Mildenhall Treasure has five spoons, three with Chi-Rho monograms, and two with personal names as part of VIVAS inscriptions (PASCENTIA VIVAS and PAPITTEDO VIVAS)

It is assumed that Roman spoons with Chi-Rho monograms or VIVAS inscriptions are either christening spoons, presented at adult baptism, or maybe used in the Eucharist ceremony.

The CHI-RHO monogram (Chi and Rho are the first Greek letters of Christ’s name)

The ‘Brentwood ring’ is made of gold and was found in 1948, at Brentwood, Essex. It has a raised octagonal bezel bearing a chi-rho monogram, bird and tree.

A lead tank from Walesby is an example of an early Christian Roman lead baptismal font dating from the 4th Century. A Chi-Rho is marked on the tank.

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A fourth-century lead font from Wethehill Farm, Icklingham, Suffolk, has a Chi-rho monogram on two places on the side, flanked by an alpha and an omega, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, another symbol of Christ – ‘I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last’ (Revelation 1:8).

Further reading:

Catherine Johns: The jewellery of  Roman Britain: Celtic and Classical tradition (Oxford, 1996)
Charles Thomas: Christianity in Britain to AD 500 (London, 1981)

Isle of Man Viking sword pommel

Thursday, 15th August, 2013

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Isle of Man Viking sword to star in major York exhibition
Fragments of a 1,100 year-old Viking sword, discovered by metal detector enthusiasts on the Isle of Man, have gone on display in North Yorkshire.
The highly decorated sword pommel, which experts have dated to around AD900, was found near Ballaugh in 2008 by Rob Farrer and Daniel Crowe.
It will be displayed as part of the Heroes exhibition at the Jorvik Viking Centre in York until November.
The show explores the stories of some of the most influential Vikings.
Head of archaeology at Manx National Heritage, Allison Fox, said it could be the “very sword which belonged to the first Viking ever to settle in the Isle of Man”.
She added: “It is around 1,100 years old. We haven’t got the whole sword but what we do have is the most decorated part which tells us when and where it hails from, probably Norway.
“We have never had anything with this level of decoration before.”
The sword fragments are made from copper alloy so were never declared Treasure Trove, which is reserved for gold and silver items.
Mr Farrer and Mr Crowe donated their find to Manx National Heritage in 2008.
At the time of the discovery, Mr Farrer told the BBC it was a “superb find” and definitely his “best to date”.
A Manx National Heritage spokeswoman said two other replica swords found on the Isle of Man have also been loaned to the York Archaeological Trust for their exhibition.
The show will explore the life of Godred Crovan, also known as King Orry, who made three attempts to capture the Isle of Man and bring it under his rule.
When he finally did he went on to reign for 16 years. The display will also feature other Viking notables including  Eric Bloodaxe, Harald Bluetooth and Leif the Lucky.
The Vikings flourished on the Isle of Man and much of their influence is still evident today.

Thor’s hammer, Lincolnshire

Tuesday, 13th August, 2013

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 Lincolnshire’s only gold ‘Thor’s hammer’ pendant discovered

A METAL detecting enthusiast has discovered a rare gold Viking pendant – the only one of its kind to be discovered in Lincolnshire.
Devin Wormsleycorr, from Spilsby, is now awaiting confirmation through the Treasure Act after discovering the piece in February.

He made the discovery in the first 10 minutes while metal detecting in a field with the landowner’s permission.
He said: “I did not know what it was at first. I just thought is was a modern day cross and put it in my pocket.

“I had found a few coins that day and thought more of them at first then the cross.
“I even wore it for a bit myself as part of a necklace – I just thought it was a modern sadist cross as it had three points on it.
“It was only when I got in touch with Adam Daubney that we thought it could be something very special.”
Adam Daubney Lincolnshire Finds Liaison Officer said: “This is something quite special.
“This is the only one in gold to be known in Lincolnshire and there are only two or three other gold ones we know about in other parts of the country.
“They are not that uncommon in bronze or silver but is quite rare in gold.
“It is currently going through the Treasure Act process which gives museums the opportunity to buy it if they want it.
“At the moment, this piece is with the British Museum awaiting valuation.”
Lincoln’s The Collection Museum has expressed an initial interest in the find.
Thor’s hammers are Viking-period amulet pendants, which are thought to represent the hammer of the Norse god Thor, known as Mjollnir.
It weighs around 3.65grams and dates late ninth or early 10th century.
It is a double-headed hammer with an elongated pentagonal head.
From the centre of the head extends an integral tapering rectangular-sectioned shaft.
The terminal of the shaft is narrowed to form a suspension loop.
Both faces of the axe are decorated with punched motifs resembling quatrefoils or perhaps miniature axes.
All sides of the shaft are also decorated in a similar manner.
Similar decoration has been seen on a silver Thor’s hammer pendant found in Leicestershire.
Mr Wormsley has made other findings in the past through his hobby, including a silver gilt seal-matrix dating back to the 14th century.

King’s Newnham Viking ring

Wednesday, 3rd July, 2013

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Viking treasure goes on show for the first time
The Viking ring discovered in King’s Newnham [Newnham Regis] and declared treasure.
A RARE Viking ring discovered on the outskirts of Rugby is to go on display to the public for the first time.
Rugby Museum‘s first official piece of treasure was found in King’s Newnham and dates back to the 9th or 10th century.
It is among a rare discovery of artefacts from that era in Warwickshire and has led experts to suggest the local area had links with Viking traders.
The ring will take centre stage during the Relics and Romans day on Saturday, July 13.
Members of Rugby Archaeology Society (RAS) will treat visitors to guided tours of the museum’s Tripontium exhibition while Geminus, the Roman craftsman and part-time guard, will give craft demonstrations and talk about living and working in the turbulent times of 4th Century Britain.
Visitors can also take along archaeological finds of their own to the museum on the day, where Dr Graham Morgan, of RAS, will offer expert advice. The event – part of the  National Festival of Archaeology – runs from 10.30am until 3.30pm.
Angie Irvine, Rugby Art Gallery and Museum’s collections officer, said: “Relics and Romans promises to offer a fascinating glimpse into the past and a fitting celebration of the National Festival of Archaeology.”

Gokstand ship footprints

Monday, 29th April, 2013

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 Dealing with the doldrums on a Viking voyage

He’s crowded into a sleek sailing ship with 65 other men. Scarcely room to move. It’s been days since anybody has seen land – longer since anyone bathed. The old-timers’ repeated tales of bygone raids and voyages are beginning to wear thin.
His place is behind an oar, but there is no need to row continuously on the North Sea. With wind in the sail, the boat surges towards England, where riches await.
But what is there to do while waiting to reach a foreign coast?
Maybe it was a teenager engaged in a Viking version of tagging a school desk. In any case, someone took out his knife, bent down and traced the outline of his foot on the deck of the Gokstad Ship.
Today, 1,100 years later, researcher and storage manager Hanne Lovise Aannestad shows us a couple of deck planks that are among her favourite artefacts at the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo.
“I think this particular item gives us a clear idea of what it was like to be living in the Viking Age, in a way that few other things do,” she says.
The Gokstad Ship was excavated in the late 1800s and is a permanent feature of the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy in Oslo.
For about a decade, from 890 to 900, the ship sailed on ocean voyages. The holes cut for oars along the upper hull are well worn, evidence that the ship had been used for more than just a funeral ceremony.
The ship’s deck was fitted with loose floorboards. These could be lifted up so that supplies and plundered treasure could be stored below deck. The outline of a foot covers two of these floorboards.
“My guess is that some time or another a person was bored and simply traced his foot with his knife. It’s a kind of an ‘I was here’ message,” says Aannestad.
There are two outlines of feet on the Gokstad Ship. One is a distinct right foot. The other is a weaker outline of a left foot on a different floorboard.
The ship was buried on land in a massive grave and the loose floorboards were helter-skelter when it was excavated. So we don’t know whether the planks with left and right feet had been originally next to each other or had been the capricious result of two separate individuals.
This makes the footprints no less fascinating for Aannestad:
“This is an artefact that gives us an empathetic understanding of a person behind the myths of the Viking Age. We know something about major events, of wars and battles and the building of kingdoms and all that, but this little outline puts you right down at the level of an individual,” she says.
“You can’t add a chapter to history with this. It shows that Vikings had feet, but we knew that. Yet it gives us an immediate emotional connection on a general human level. These were real people who went on Viking voyages, not cartoonish stereotypes. The voyages could be boring as well as harrowing.”
The outlines weren’t discovered until 2009. The floorboards were being moved from the museum at Bygdøy when one of Aannestad’s colleagues spotted the carved footprints.
So even 130 years after its excavation, researchers continue to make discoveries about one of Norway’s most famous and thoroughly studied vessels.
Aannestad has measured one of her own feet against a tracing of the carved outline – because no one can actually step on the fragile floorboard, of course. The foot was smaller than hers, and even though people were generally shorter in the Viking days, this was probably a little person.
“It could have been a young man. People were treated as adults much earlier in those days. They took off sooner than we would allow young boys to do today,” says Aannestad.
So we are free to let our imaginations run:
A young lad is bored with the tedium of a long voyage. On a whim he looks down at his foot and considers something that would provide a little diversion.
He was sufficiently dedicated to the task to include his toenails in his outline.
Maybe this was his first voyage and the drawing of his foot took his mind off the test of his manhood awaiting him in English or Irish towns? Perhaps this outline is the foot of a person who grew famous and whose name has been passed down to us through the sagas?
“We can only speculate. We’ll never know. In any case, we see the outline of an individual here,” says Aannestad.

North Yorkshire Viking Hoard

Wednesday, 27th March, 2013

 

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Viking Hoard found in Bedale
Gold and silver hoard is a “significant and nationally important discovery”
A gold sword pommel, a unique silver neck ring and a silver armlet are part of a significant Viking Hoard which has been found in Bedale, North Yorkshire.
A total of 29 silver ingots, four other silver neck rings, gold rivets and half a silver brooch were also found in the hoard which is believed to be from the late ninth or early tenth century.
Part of the hoard was found by metal detectorist Stuart Campbell who then informed archaeologists who uncovered the rest.
The Yorkshire Museum, York, will now try and raise the funds to purchase the hoard to keep it in the county on public display.
Andrew Morrison, head curator at the Yorkshire Museum, said: “This is a significant and nationally important find which we hope will shed new light on Yorkshire at that time.
“The artefacts uncovered are typical of a Viking Hoard, with the majority of it being silver ingots which were used for currency. However the gold sword pommel and a unique silver neck ring are incredibly beautiful and rare finds. We now hope to be able to raise the funds needed to keep them in Yorkshire.”
The artefacts are currently at the British Museum, London, until they are officially declared treasure and valued. The hoard has yet to go to inquest to be officially declared treasure, so the exact funds needed are not yet known.
The discovery of the hoard was made in May last year on land in Bedale (the landowner would like the actual site to remain secret).
Mr Campbell and his metal detecting partner realised they had found something significant and reported it to the North Yorkshire finds liaison officer of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, Rebecca Griffiths, based at the Yorkshire Museum. She and her colleague from the museum then went to the site to excavate the rest of the hoard.
No coins were present in the hoard to date it, however by studying the contents and comparing it to other hoards, archaeologists believe it is from the late ninth or early tenth century.
The large pommel found is believed to be from an Anglo-Saxon sword. This is made from iron and is inlaid with plaques of gold foil. These plaques bear Trewhiddle style decoration (named after a hoard found in Trewhiddle, Cornwall), consisting of animals, which was a common style all over England in the ninth century. This decoration is usually applied to silver and copper alloy and its use on gold is rare: its use on large foils, like those found here, is otherwise unknown.
With the pommel were four oval ring mounts from the grip of a sword. These are made from gold and they bear incised Trewhiddle style animal interlace. Six, tiny, dome headed, gold rivets may also have been used on a sword hilt.
The unique neck ring is made up of four ropes of twisted silver strands joined together at each end. They terminate in hooks which would have been linked together when the collar was worn.
Like most of the hoards of the period the Bedale find is dominated by silver ingots of which there were 29. There are also some pieces cut from the ends of ingots with the characteristic single chisel chopped across them. Nick marks can be seen on some of the ingots showing that the quality of the silver had been tested with the point of a knife.
There are three other twisted neck rings, one of which has been cut in two as ‘hack silver’. The hoard also contained a piece of a ‘Permian’ ring, cut as hack-silver. Such rings consist of round sectioned bars, the surface of which are covered with close-packed, fine spiral grooves.
A broad, flat arm-ring is of Hiberno-Scandinavian type, made by the Vikings in Ireland. This is decorated with a pattern of stamp impressed grooves. Also from Ireland are the hack-silver remains of a bossed penannular brooch.